Parental self-employment has been shown to have a positive influence on offspring's subsequent choice of self-employment as a career. Previous studies have, however, not considered its dependence on parental performance in self-employment and at what stage of the offspring's development (late childhood, adolescence, or young adulthood) this influence is highest. This article uses social learning and career development theories to argue that first, parental influence may not exist in case of parents' economic failure in self-employment, and second, that when it does occur, it is more pronounced when the offspring is a young adult. Using the United States Panel Study of Income Dynamics data set, we find empirical support for our hypotheses.
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- ADOLESCENT DRINKING