Extensive research has been conducted into the antecedents and consequences of workplace envy, but there have been limited meta-analytic reviews. This meta-analysis draws on social comparison theory to examine studies of envy in the workplace and develop a comprehensive model of the antecedents and consequences of workplace envy. We reconcile the divergent findings in the literature by building a model of three types of workplace envy that distinguishes between episodic, dispositional, and general envy. The results suggest that individual differences (e.g., narcissism, neuroticism), organizational contexts (e.g., competition, position), and social desirability are predictors of workplace envy. They also reveal that workplace envy is related to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), negative behaviors (e.g., ostracism, social undermining), negative emotions, organizational perceptions (i.e., engagement, satisfaction), turnover intentions, and moral disengagement. We test the moderating roles of envy types, measurement approaches, and causal directions. The results reveal that these moderators have little differences, and that some variables (e.g., self-esteem, fairness) may be both antecedents and consequences of workplace envy. Finally, we suggest that future research into workplace envy should investigate contextual predictors and moderators of the social comparison process that triggers envy. This meta-analysis can serve as a foundation for future research into workplace envy.
Project sponsorNational Social Science Fund of China