To examine the linkage between employee core self-evaluation (CSE) and employee outcomes and the moderating effects of transformational leadership on the latter relationships. A survey with 546 matched supervisor–subordinate dyads representing six South Korean organizations. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the research hypotheses including the moderating effects. Employee CSE was positively associated with job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, and job performance. In addition, the latter relationships were facilitated by transformational leadership. Specifically, the relationship between CSE and job satisfaction and affective organizational commitment became strongest as transformational leadership was higher rather than lower. These findings contribute to a developing research literature that integrates individual characteristics and behaviors of both leaders and followers in leadership research. These results are also important in developing and in refining leadership theories on how leadership behaviors interact with followers’ personality traits in influencing employee outcomes. Our findings also provide practical implications for organizations. For example, organizations wishing to enhance leadership effectiveness must consider individual characteristics and behaviors of both leaders and followers. One of few studies has examined the cross-level moderating effects of leadership behaviors on the relationships between followers’ CSE and employee outcomes.
Corresponding author email@example.com
Project nameNational Research Foundation of Korea Korean Government
- Affective organizational commitment
- Core self-evaluation
- Job performance
- Job satisfaction
- Transformational leadership