Cooperation across cultures: An examination of the concept in 16 countries

Karen Moustafa Leonard (First Author), Tae-Yeol Kim (Participant Author), Christopher Cosans (Participant Author), Fatma Pakdil (Participant Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal

4 Citations (Web of Science)


Businesses are coordinated organizations, and cooperation among employees reduces overall organizational costs. Understanding how important cooperation is among different cultures is important, as business becomes increasingly global. However, cross-cultural literature on cooperation deals with firm alliances, joint ventures, and other firm interrelationships, but not on societal differences in cooperation. Is cooperation similar across cultures? Using proxies, this study sought to operationalize cooperation and examine its underpinnings in countries, using the cultural dimensions of individualism and power distance. Although the initial hypotheses stated that cooperation would look different across these dimensions, the international set of 6452 respondents showed that the overwhelming majority had a similar view of cooperation. The study adds to our understanding of cooperation in different societies and contexts, and suggests that there may be a universal view of cooperation across cultures.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)238-247
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012

Corresponding author email


  • Collectivism
  • Cooperation
  • Culture
  • Individualism
  • Management
  • Power distance

Indexed by

  • ABDC-A
  • Scopus
  • SSCI


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